PDF Broadband Network Architectures: Designing and Deploying Triple-Play Services

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Demand for access to the Internet and multimedia applications continues to increase for both commerce and society. However, there are technical challenges associated with such network traffic as well as for broadband networks and these must be overcome in order to facilitate the continues deployment of high bandwidth access network technologies to support this high level demand. Through this module, the student will understand all technical aspects and limitations associated with broadband networks and will be able to analyse requirements, plan, design, simulate using OPNET, ns-2, etc and recommend on best options of broadband access network based on a customer scenario.

Students are also prepared for progression onto a PhD programme in a specific aspect of Broadband Networks. A series of lectures covers the entire syllabus. An extensive laboratory hands-on programme enhances the understanding of the theoretical concepts in their practical context. Prepared material will be used to provide background to many of these issues. A limited range of appropriate textbooks will be used, however, much of the material will be supported by articles and Internet URLs.

Full provision of documents relating to the module, in electronic format, will be provided through WebLearn. LO1: Demonstrate familiarisation with the evolution of communications and deployment of broadband networks towards the access network, and the multimedia services provided. LO2: Understand the various types of traffic, whether real time or not, and its demands on networks, expected quality of service and demanded quality of experience.

LO5: Differentiate and recommend on the various types of broadband access techniques wired, wireless or optical.

LO6: Plan, design, simulate, analyse results and recommend on a range of scenarios based on customer requirements on various types of broadband networks. The report will be assessed by the completeness of the broadband network plan, design, simulation using appropriate simulator such as OPNET, ns-2, or other similar , analysis of simulated results obtained, and the quality of the documentation produced. Forgot your password? No problem!

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This chapter will give an overview on the triple-play services. It is achieved by sending a single copy of a media stream into the network. Then the network replicates the stream to subscribers closer to the edge. This method saves bandwidth at the core. Before the stream can go into the IP core, it has to go through a process. First it goes to the video feed receiver and decoder, then to the IP encoder and encryption process. Now the stream is ready to go through the IP core network to the end user. Users have the possibility to select normal broadcasting or Video on Demand VoD.

In normal broadcasting service providers offer different channel packets that can contain channels that normal TV does not offer. There are two basic models of VoD.

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In this model, customers can watch their favourite movies as many times as they want for a period of time. The downside is that the stream can not be paused or fast forwarded. The full Video on demand approach gives customers more choices. In this model, the stream is sent to the user when requested. A full on-demand service is what internet service providers are aiming at. It is also the main reason customers get a broadband connection. Nowadays every ISP can offer high speed connections at affordable prices.

So it is the additional services that ISPs use to get an edge over competitors. Premium gaming services attract customers to use ISP gaming servers. Customers want a lower ping and a higher priority for their gaming traffic. With a higher priority, gamers will get less latency and jitter. For online gamers latency is not as bad as jitter. Jitter makes the connection slower and inconsistent. One solution is to mark the IP traffic with a DiffServ priority number. This will give the gamers traffic a higher priority over best-effort traffic.

Walled-Garden services usually need a unique device to access the content, for example the mobile phone or a satellite radio receiver. Accessing the internet from your mobile phone is probably the best known service. Customers can send e-mail, read the news and subscribe content such as games and other software. Users have had the chance to use Skype or Vonage to talk to each other over the internet for free and this makes it a familiar service.

It can offer services that were very difficult or too expensive for traditional phone lines. Users can now log onto a portal and enable a second VoIP line to the household. Now it is also possible to transmit more than one telephone call down the same broadband —connected telephone line. This makes adding extra phone lines to home or office very easy. VoIP also has 3-way calling, call forwarding, automatic redial and caller ID.

These are all features that traditionally where chargeable. The development of fiber has come a long way since the , when the world saw the first modern optical fiber. The basic idea is very simple. Light travels through glass. Optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optic fibers. This section will focus on the basic components of optical fiber cable.

It will also answer questions on how and why the cable is constructed and protected. It is optimized for use at the nm wavelength region, but it can also be used at the nm wavelength. The most notable dispersion in single mode fiber is the chromatic dispersion and in the G.

The cut-off wavelength is the smallest wave- length that the light will travel as single mode. In the G. A it is nm. Because there are different conditions outdoors and indoors, the cables have to be equally different. This division is important because it affects the reliability of the cables. There are also cable models that combine the qualities of outdoor and indoor cables.

It is used by ISP for campus and building backbone cable. Because installing cable is more expensive than the fibre itself, the cable usually has more than one fibre. A small cable consists of 1, 2, 4, 6 or 12 fibers. A medium size cable has 18, 24, 30 or 36 fibers. The large cables start from 48 fibers and go up in steps of Table 1 shows the main qualities of indoor and outdoor cables.

Without protection it can easily break. To make the fiber strong it is enclosed in a protected sleeve or sleeves, also known as jackets or buffers. The first set of protection is known as primary protection. The overall protection of the cable depends on the use. Some cables will be installed inside so the protection is light. While other cables are installed outside so they need a better protection against water, cold, sun light, rodents and road construction. They also need to withstand these conditions for several decades.

Different coating methods are displayed in Figure 1 [2] 6 Figure 1 Fiber coatings, tight buffer and loose tube. There are two types of secondary protection for fibers, loose tube and tight buffer. Usually tight buffer cable is used inside buildings and loose tube outdoors. Tight buffer is typically just another coating on top of the primary protection. In Loose tube protection, a hollow tube surrounds the fiber or fibers. In Figure 2, all the core structures are presented. After the secondary coating, there are three types of core structures. In standard lose tube the secondary coated cables are around a central element.

The cable can be tight or loose. It depends on the secondary protection. The first optical cables were loose tube design and it still is a very popular cable. Next there is the single tube design.

Ftth topology

The heart of the cable is a strength member. Inside the strengthening member there are primary coated cables in a loose formation. The diameter of the pipe is around mm. This design has a very good crushing protection. This is achieved by placing strengthening members inside the jacket and the core. The third design is called slotted core. The core is a plastic rod that has slots for the primary coated cables. This design has a good crushing strength and installing it is simple.

This is because it has easy access to the fibres. One can take the fibres out one by one or in groups. In the center of the cable is a pulling element. The pulling will usually break the glass fibers, so some protection against it is needed. The protection has to be strong enough so that the cable can be moved without breaking the 8 glass. This is why the cable is reinforced with strength members and pulling elements. There are many different kinds of strength members and pulling elements and the location in the cable depends on the structure.

In Standard loose tube and Slotted core the pulling element is in the centre of the cable Figure 2. The material used for the element is either metal or non-metal. If metal, it is usually steel fiber that has been galvanized or copper plated. The nonmetal choice for the element is plastic that has been reinforced with glass fiber. For further protection Kevlar is installed in the cable. In Single tube the fibers are at the centre. This means that the elements are at the sides of the cable Figure 2. To protect the cable from water and moisture it is filled with gel or filling grease.

The filling does not leave room for water. If for some reason water leaks to the cable, it does not have room to do any damage. This is because the filling stops the spreading of water. The filling can also be expanding fibers.


When water comes in contact with them, they expand and block the water from reaching the core. Transmitters need to be durable. They have to work at room temperatures continuously for many years. Also it must be possible to modulate the light output over a range of modulating frequencies. The output wavelength should coincide with the fiber type used.

The receivers use a photodiode to convert the signal back to electrical. Two types can be used, a PIN photodiode and an Avalanche photodiode. You have to connect the fibers in order to establish a connection. Connectors at the end of the fibre enable 9 one to connect the fibers to equipment like routers for example. There are also Adapters that make it possible to connect two fibers to each other. The basic parameters for connectors are 1. Insertion loss If two connectors are connected with an adapter and the loss of the system is increased by for example 0.

Then the 0. Typically the value is around 0. Return loss Fresnel reflection measure. The power reflected off a connector back to the light source. Typically around dB. Mating durability Also known as Insertion loss change.

Broadband Network Architecture - PDF

Indicates the increase in Insertion loss after the connector has been connected and disconnected a number of times. Typically around 0. Operating temperature Compatible with optic fiber cables. Cable retention Also known as tensile strength or pull-out loading. The number indicates what kind of load the connector can handle before the fibre is pulled out of the connection.

Typically around N. Repeatability Indicates how consistent the insertion loss is when a joint is disconnected and remade. Not always found in specifications because there is no uniform method of measuring it. Sometimes manufacturers describe repeatability as high or very high. It offers excellent packing density and the push-pull design of the connector reduces the chance of fiber end face contact damage during connection. The SC-connector has insertion loss of 0,2 - 0,45 dB and a return loss of 50dB. Its repeatability is around 0,3 dB for matings.

The LC connector Figure 3, in the middle is slowly replacing the SC connector because of its small size. It has a insertion loss of turn loss of 55 dB. The repeatability is 0,3 dB and a re- 0,3 dB for matings. Before the customer can access the internet, three things have to be in place; Access Network, Aggregation Network and Edge Network. When all three network elements are put together, internet service provider can offer high bandwidth broadband access to business and individual customers. FEA gives internet service providers the opportunity to offer services to residential users and small to medium businesses.

Figure 5 represents a FEA network. The user node is connected to the Local Node in two different ways. The FEA solution also supports fiber to the home feature. From there, the connection goes through the Regional Node to the Central Node. The available services to the end user depend on the in-house cabling that connects the User Node to the Local Node. A User Node can do the following tasks: Physical media conversions fiber-copper , Ethernet switching one or several user ports , IP address translation routing, filtering , Voice over IP encoding and decoding VoIP Gateway and Supervision of its own functionality for remote management.

Different user nodes are presented in Figure 6. Figure 6, User Node alternatives [5] 13 The figure shows four different types of user nodes.

module specification

Two are connected with copper and two with fiber. The basic model has just one Ethernet connection. Then there is the fourth model that has four Ethernet connections and two telephone lines. The connection speed between the User node and Local node is Mbps.

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Using Cat6 in-house cabling the connection could be as high as 1 Gbps. It handles the upstream traffic for further transport. In the downstream direction, it handles traffic distribution and service delivery towards end user-devices. A Local node can perform the following tasks; Assignment and classification of traffic into separated logical networks, Priority handling of traffic for subscribed services, Selective filtering of end-user generated traffic, Supervision of its own vital functional entities, Control of used bandwidth per port and service.

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Figure 7, Local node [5] 14 In the figure above, the Local node aggregates the user connections to the Regional or Central node. The connection speed between the Local node and Regional node is 1 Gbps. The recommended maximum distance between the Local node and the Central node is 5km using the Base-LX standard with single mode optical fiber at wavelength of nm. It is used to support the hierarchical network structure Figure 8. Its task is to aggregate Local node connections to the Central node.

Regional nodes are used when the distance between Local node and Central node is too long. But the usage mostly depends on the excising fibers at the area. Figure 8, FEA Network without and with Regional node [5] For example, if there is plenty of fiber at the area all Local nodes can be connected to the Central node individually using fiber pairs. This is the recommended solution to all areas. But, when there are just a few fiber pairs available Regional nodes can be used to connect a number of Local nodes to the Central node using one fiber pair. Regional node can offer network efficiency in traffic aggregation and distribution.

At the same time it decreases the number of access network interfaces needed in the Central node.

Figure 9 represents a Regional node interface. The speed between the Regional node and Central node is 1 to 4 Gbps.